牙体牙髓病学(山东大学首批国际化专业建设课程)
适用课程: 牙体牙髓病学(0243202210),牙体牙髓病学(sd02430480)【访问量:52178】

牙体牙髓病

教学大纲

 

(第四版)

内 科

 

2013 5

 

 

 

 

课程编号:0243202210

学分: 3  

讲课学时:40

实验学时:80

适用专业:口腔五年制/七年制临床医学

主编:王青 熊世江

主审:王青

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

表一 理论授课学时分配表

 

章节

授课内容

学时

第一章

概述

1

第二章

病因及发病过程 

3

第三章

临床表现与诊断

2

第四章

龋病治疗

4

第五章

银汞合金充填

2

第六章

牙体缺损的粘结修复

4

第七章

牙发育异常和着色牙

2

第八章

牙外伤 

1

第九章

牙慢性损伤

0.6

第十章

牙本质过敏症 

0.2

第十一章

牙体硬组织非龋性疾病的治疗

0.2

第十二章

牙髓及根尖周组织生理学特点

2

第十三章

病因及发病机制

1

 第十四章

病史采集和临床检查方法

1

 第十五章

牙髓病的临床表现及诊断

2

 第十六章

 根尖周病的临床表现及诊断 

2

 第十七章

牙髓病和根尖周病治疗概述

2

 第十八章

活髓保存与根尖诱导成形术

2

 第十九章

根管治疗术

1

 第二十章

髓腔应用解剖与开髓 

1

第二十一章

根管预备与消毒

2

第二十二章

根管充填

  1

第二十三章

显微根管治疗与根管外科

  1

第二十四章

根管治疗并发症及根管再治疗 

1.5

第二十五章

根管治疗后的牙体修复

0.5

40学时

                    

表二 实验教学学时分配表

 

实验次序

实验内容

学时数

1

治疗椅的使用、各种口腔器械的认识及基本检查方法

4

2

石膏牙模型上制作Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞

4

3

石膏牙模型上制备Ⅲ、Ⅴ类洞

4

4

仿头模模型牙上Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞制备

4

5

仿头模模型牙上Ⅲ、Ⅴ类洞的制备

4

6

仿真头模离体牙上制备Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞

4

7

仿真头模离体牙上Ⅲ、Ⅴ类洞的制备

4

8

橡皮障隔离术

4

9

模型牙及离体牙上Ⅰ、Ⅱ类窝洞充填

4

10

粘结修复术

4

11

见习常规备洞及充填

4

12

上颌牙开髓术

4

13

下颌牙的开髓术

4

14

盖髓术与活髓切断术

4

15

根管治疗术Ⅰ——单根管离体牙根管治疗

4

16

根管治疗术Ⅱ—— 离体多根牙的根管治疗

4

17

根管治疗术Ⅲ

4

18

根尖手术

4

19

手术显微镜在牙髓病治疗中的应用

4

20

牙髓病根尖周病见习

4

80学时

 

 

一、本课程的地位、作用和任务

《牙体牙髓病学》是口腔医学中的一门重要临床专业课程,是研究龋病、牙体硬组织非龋疾病、牙髓病和根尖周组织疾病的病因、临床症状、诊断和治疗的科学。由于龋病是人类最常见的疾病之一,牙髓病和根尖周病是口腔疾病中引起患者剧烈疼痛的常见病,因此,掌握牙体牙髓病的发生、发展的基本理论及诊断、防治方法是对口腔医学生和口腔医师的最基本要求。

学生通过对牙体牙髓病学基本理论的学习,基本临床技能的训练和临床实习,能掌握本专业的基础知识、基本理论和基本技能。本课程讲授与实践相结合,并结合科研和临床发展适当介绍本学科国内外的发展动态与学术前沿。学生通过听课、实验室操作、电教、临床见习、临床实习及病案讨论、考试等方式完成教学大纲内容。

本课程教学的基本内容

      口腔牙体牙髓病学的学科内容是研究龋病,牙体硬组织非龋性疾病,牙髓病和根尖周病的病因及发病过程,临床表现、诊断与治疗,包括银汞合金充填;牙体缺损的粘结修复;牙发育异常和着色牙;牙外伤;牙慢性损伤;牙本质过敏症;牙体硬组织非龋性疾病的治疗;牙髓及根尖周组织生理学特点;病因及发病机制;病史采集和临床检查方法;牙髓病的临床表现及诊断;根尖周病的临床表现及诊断;牙髓病和根尖周病治疗概述;活髓保存与根尖诱导成形术;根管治疗术;髓腔应用解剖与开髓;根管预备与消毒;根管充填;显微根管治疗与根管外科;根管治疗并发症及根管再治疗;根管治疗后的牙体修复。

三、课程教学基本要求

 

                       第一篇  龋病

   第一章  概述

[目的要求]

1. 掌握龋病的定义和特征。

     2. 掌握龋病的好发部位:好发牙、好发牙面。

3. 熟悉龋病学的研究内容。

4. 熟悉龋病流行病学的评价方法:患病率及发病率、龋均。

     5. 熟悉现代人龋病的流行情况,龋病的流行趋势。

     6. 了解龋病的历史

[教学内容]

     1. 龋病的定义和特征。

     2. 龋病的好发部位:好发牙、好发牙面。

3. 龋病学的研究内容。

4. 龋病流行病学的评价方法:患病率及发病率、龋均。

     5. 现代人龋病的流行情况,龋病的流行趋势。

     6. 了解龋病的历史

第一节 龋病的概念

一、龋病的定义和特征

二、龋病的历史

三、龋病学的研究内容。

第二节 龋病流行病学

一、评价方法

二、龋病的好发部位

三、现代人龋病流行情况

四、龋病流行趋势

 

第二章  病因及发病过程

[目的要求]

1. 掌握牙菌斑的形成过程。    

2. 掌握与龋病发病关系密切的微生物及其致龋特征。

 3. 掌握龋病发病机制的解释。

4. 熟悉与龋病发生有关的饮食、宿主、免疫因素。

5. 了解影响龋病发生和发展的其他因素。

[教学内容]

     1. 牙菌斑的形成过程。    

     2. 与龋病发病关系密切的微生物及其致龋特征。

 3. 龋病发病机制的解释。

4. 与龋病发生有关的饮食、宿主、免疫因素。

5. 影响龋病发生和发展的其他因素。

第一节 牙菌斑

一、牙菌斑的结构

二、牙菌斑的组成

三、牙菌斑的形成和发育

四、牙菌斑微生物学

五、牙菌斑的物质代谢

六、牙菌斑的致龋性

第二节 饮食因素

一、碳水化合物

二、蛋白质

三、脂类

四、维生素

五、无机盐

第三节 宿主

一、牙

二、唾液

三、免疫

第四节 影响龋病发生发展的其他因素

一、年龄

二、性别

三、种族

四、家族与遗传

五、地理因素

第五节 病因学说

一、内源性理论

二、外源性学说

三、蛋白溶解学说

四、蛋白溶解-鳌合学说

五、Miller化学细菌学说

六、龋病病因的四联因素理论

七、广义龋病生态学假说

 

第三章  临床表现与诊断

[目的要求]

1. 掌握龋病的临床表现、诊断方法和诊断标准。

2. 熟悉龋病临床分类。

     3. 了解龋病的病理过程

[教学内容]

1. 龋病的临床表现、诊断方法和诊断标准。

2. 龋病临床分类。

     3. 龋病的病理过程

第一节 龋病的病理过程

一、釉质龋

二、牙本质龋

三、牙骨质龋

四、脱矿和再矿化

第二节 龋病的临床表现及分类

一、按发病情况及进展速度分类

二、按损害的解剖部位分类掌握按深度分类

三、按病变深度分类

第三节 龋病的诊断

一、诊断方法

二、诊断标准

第四章 龋病治疗

[目的要求]

   1. 掌握牙体非手术治疗方法,深龋、根面龋的治疗以及牙体修复与材料选择的原则。

2. 熟悉窝洞的分类和结构。

3. 了解牙体修复治疗的生物学基础。

[教学内容]

1. 牙体非手术治疗方法,深龋、根面龋的治疗以及牙体修复与材料选择的原则。

2. 窝洞的分类和结构。

3. 牙体修复治疗的生物学基础。

第一节 非手术治疗

一、药物治疗

二、再矿化治疗

三、预防性树脂充填术

第二节 牙体修复治疗的生物学基础

一、釉质

二、牙髓牙本质复合体

三、牙骨质

四、牙周组织

第三节 牙体修复与材料选择的原则

一、牙体修复的原则

二、充填材料的选择原则

第四节 窝洞的分类与结构

一、窝洞的分类

二、窝洞的命名

三、窝洞的结构

第五节 深龋的治疗

一、深龋的治疗原则

二、深龋的治疗方法

三、深龋的治疗方案

第六节 根面龋的治疗

      一、根面龋的临床特点

      二、根面龋的治疗原则

 

第五章  银汞合金充填 

[目的要求]

     1. 掌握窝洞预备的基本原则。

     2. 掌握窝洞预备的基本步骤。

     3. 掌握银汞合金充填术的适应证。

 4. 熟悉龋病治疗的并发症及处理。

     5. 熟悉各类银汞合金充填窝洞的预备要点。

 6. 了解银汞合金的调制。

     7. 了解汞污染及预防。

[教学内容]

 1. 窝洞预备的基本原则。

     2. 窝洞预备的基本步骤。

     3. 银汞合金充填术的适应证。

 4. 龋病治疗的并发症及处理。

     5. 各类银汞合金充填窝洞的预备要点。

 6. 银汞合金的调制。

     7. 汞污染及预防。

第一节 窝洞预备的基本原则

一、去净龋坏组织

二、保护牙髓组织

三、尽量保留健康牙体组织

四、注意患者全身状况

第二节 窝洞预备的基本步骤

一、预备洞形

二、无痛制洞法

三、术区隔离

四、窝洞消毒

五、窝洞封闭、衬洞及垫底

第三节 银汞合金充填术

一、适应证

二、窝洞预备的要求

三、各类银汞合金充填窝洞的预备要点

四、银汞合金的调制

五、银汞合金充填

六、汞污染及预防

第四节 龋病治疗并发症及处理

一、意外穿髓

二、充填后疼痛

三、充填体折断、脱落

四、牙齿折裂

五、继发龋

 

第六章  牙体缺损的粘结修复 

[目的要求]

     1. 掌握复合树脂直接修复术的适应证、禁忌证和优缺点。

     2. 掌握牙本质粘结系统的分型、机制和临床选择。

     3. 掌握复合树脂直接修复的临床操作步骤。

     4. 掌握前牙 Ⅲ 类洞的复合树脂直接修复。

     5. 掌握后牙Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞复合树脂直接修复。

 6. 熟悉釉质粘结系统及其机制。

     7. 熟悉复合树脂的材料性能及其影响因素。

     8. 熟悉玻璃离子体、复合体等材料的临床应用。

     9. 熟悉前牙Ⅳ类洞复合树脂直接修复。

     10. 熟悉后牙复合树脂直接修复失败的原因。

 11. 了解牙体粘结的发展过程。

     12. 了解牙体修复材料复合树脂、玻璃离子体及复合体的性能。

[教学内容]

1.复合树脂直接修复术的适应证、禁忌证和优缺点。

    2.牙本质粘结系统的分型、机制和临床选择。

    3.复合树脂直接修复的临床操作步骤。

    4.前牙 Ⅲ 类洞的复合树脂直接修复。

    5.后牙Ⅰ、Ⅱ类洞复合树脂直接修复。

6.釉质粘结系统及其机制。

    7.复合树脂的材料性能及其影响因素。

    8.玻璃离子体、复合体等材料的临床应用。

    9.前牙Ⅳ类洞复合树脂直接修复。

     10.后牙复合树脂直接修复失败的原因。

 11.牙体粘结的发展过程。

     12.牙体修复材料复合树脂、玻璃离子体及复合体的性能。

第一节 牙体粘结技术原理

一、概述

二、釉质粘结

三、牙本质粘结

第二节 牙色修复材料

一、复合树脂

二、玻璃离子体

三、复合体

第三节 复合树脂直接修复术

一、概述

二、准备过程

三、牙体预备与牙髓保护

四、成形片的放置

五、粘结

六、复合树脂的充填

七、复合树脂的固化

八、修复体的修形和抛光

第四节 前牙复合树脂直接修复

一、概述

二、Ⅲ类洞直接修复的临床技术

三、Ⅳ类洞直接修复的临床技术

四、Ⅴ类洞直接修复的临床技术

第五节 后牙复合树脂直接修复

一、概述

二、Ⅰ类洞直接修复的临床技术

三、Ⅱ类洞直接修复的临床技术

四、Ⅱ类洞玻璃离子体加复合树脂三明治修复技术

五、后牙直接修复失败的原因

 

第二篇 牙体硬组织非龋性疾病

第七章 牙发育异常和着色牙 

[目的要求]

     1.掌握着色牙,尤其是氟牙症的发病机制和预防原则。

     2.熟悉着色牙的分类及诊断标准。

     3.熟悉畸形中央尖的防治原则。

     4.了解牙发育异常的病因及种类。

     5.了解牙本质发育不全的病因及其分类。

     6.了解梅毒牙的发病机理及临床表现。

[教学内容]

     1.着色牙,尤其是氟牙症的发病机制和预防原则。

 2.着色牙的分类及诊断标准。

 3.畸形中央尖的防治原则。

 4.牙发育异常的病因及种类。

     5.牙本质发育不全的病因及其分类。

     6.梅毒牙的发病机理及临床表现。

第一节 牙发育异常和结构异常

一、釉质发育不全

二、遗传性牙本质障碍

三、先天性梅毒牙

第二节 着色牙

一、氟牙症

二、四环素牙

第三节 牙形态异常

一、过小牙、过大牙、锥形牙

二、融合牙、双生牙、结合牙

三、畸形中央尖

四、牙内陷

五、釉珠

第四节 牙数目异常

第五节 牙萌出异常

一、早萌

二、萌出过迟、异位和萌出困难

 

第八章  牙外伤

[目的要求]

掌握牙外伤的种类及处理原则。

[教学内容]

牙外伤的种类及处理原则

第一节 牙震荡  

第二节 牙脱位

第三节 牙折

 

第九章  牙慢性损伤 

[目的要求]

1. 掌握磨损、磨耗、楔状缺损、酸蚀症的概念。

2. 熟悉楔状缺损的病因,牙隐裂和牙根纵裂的诊治要点。

3. 了解不同种类和不同来源的酸造成的酸蚀症的临床表现。

[教学内容]

 1. 磨损、磨耗、楔状缺损、酸蚀症的概念。

 2. 楔状缺损的病因,牙隐裂和牙根纵裂的诊治要点。

     3. 不同种类和不同来源的酸造成的酸蚀症的临床表现。

第一节  磨损

一、概述

二、病因

三、临床表现

四、治疗原则

第二节 酸蚀症

   一、概述

二、病因

三、临床表现

四、防治原则

第三节 楔状缺损

一、概述

二、病因

三、临床表现

四、防治原则

第四节 牙隐裂

一、概述

二、病因

三、临床表现

四、防治原则

第五节 牙根纵裂

一、概述

二、病因

三、临床表现

       四、治疗

 

第十章 牙本质过敏症 

[目的要求]

1. 掌握牙本质过敏症的主要症状、分级和检查方法。

2. 熟悉牙本质过敏症处理原则。

3. 了解流体动力学说。

[教学内容]

1. 牙本质过敏症的主要症状、分级和检查方法。

2. 牙本质过敏症处理原则。

3. 流体动力学说。

一、 概述

二、 危险因素

三、 发生机制

四、 临床表现和诊断

五、 处理原则

 

第十一章 牙体硬组织非龋性疾病的治疗

[目的要求] 

1. 掌握牙体硬组织非龋性疾病3种异常表现的主要治疗方法。

2. 熟悉:内、外漂白术的操作要点。

3. 了解:无髓牙漂白术的主要并发症。

[教学内容]

1. 牙体硬组织非龋性疾病3种异常表现的主要治疗方法。

2. 内、外漂白术的操作要点。

3. 无髓牙漂白术的主要并发症。

 

一、 牙本质敏感症

二、 氟牙症

三、 四环素牙

四、 无髓牙

 

 

第三篇   牙髓病和根尖周病

第十二章 牙髓及根尖周组织生理学特点  

[目的要求]

1.掌握牙髓的形态学特点和成牙本质细胞结构特点。

2.熟悉牙髓的功能及牙髓感觉神经纤维的特点。

3.了解牙髓的增龄性变化和牙骨质的生理学特点。

[教学内容]

1. 牙髓的形态学特点和成牙本质细胞结构特点。

2. 牙髓的功能及牙髓感觉神经纤维的特点。

3. 牙髓的增龄性变化和牙骨质的生理学特点。

第一节 牙髓形态及组织结构

一、形态学特点

二、结构特点

第二节 牙髓的功能

一、形成功能

二、营养功能

三、感觉功能

四、防御功能

第三节 牙髓增龄性变化

一、体积变化

二、结构变化

三、功能变化

第四节 根尖周组织生理学特点

一、牙骨质

二、牙周膜

三、牙槽骨

 

第十三章 病因及发病机制

[目的要求]

      1. 掌握细菌因素在牙髓病和根尖周病的发病中的作用及机制。

      2. 掌握牙髓病及根尖周病的感染途径。

  3. 熟悉细菌因素的致病机制及宿主的反应。

  4. 了解物理、化学、免疫因素的作用。

[教学内容]

 1. 细菌因素在牙髓病和根尖周病的发病中的作用及机制。

     2. 牙髓病及根尖周病的感染途径。

 3. 细菌因素的致病机制及宿主的反应。

     4.物理、化学、免疫因素的作用。

第一节 微生物因素

一、优势菌及其代谢产物

二、感染途径

三、致病机制

第二节 物理因素

一、创伤

二、温度

三、电流

四、激光

第三节 化学因素

一、 充填材料

二、酸蚀剂及粘接剂

三、消毒药物、

 

第十四章  病史采集和临床检查方法 

[目的要求]

 1. 掌握病史采集的内容和询问方法。

     2. 掌握牙髓活力测验的原理和方法。

 3. 熟悉影像学检查方法的选择及其临床应用的局限性。

 4. 了解锥形束CT和手术显微镜在牙髓病和根尖周病诊断中的应用。

[教学内容]

 1. 病史采集的内容和询问方法。

     2. 牙髓活力测验的原理和方法。

 3. 影像学检查方法的选择及其临床应用的局限性。

     4. 锥形束CT和手术显微镜在牙髓病和根尖周病诊断中的应用。

第一节 病史采集

一、主诉

二、现病史

三、全身病史

第二节 临床检查方法

一、牙髓活力测验

二、影像学检查

 

第十五章  牙髓病的临床表现及诊断

[目的要求]

     1.掌握各型牙髓病的临床诊断术语、临床表现、诊断要点。

     2.掌握牙髓炎的诊断程序和鉴别诊断思路。

  3.熟悉牙髓的各种病理变化和分类。

     4.了解牙痛的鉴别诊断思路和所需鉴别的疾病。

[教学内容]

 1.各型牙髓病的临床诊断术语、临床表现、诊断要点。

     2.牙髓炎的诊断程序和鉴别诊断思路。

  3.牙髓的各种病理变化和分类。

     4.牙痛的鉴别诊断思路和所需鉴别的疾病。

第一节 分类

一、组织病理学分类

二、临床分类

第二节 牙髓病的临床诊断程序

第三节 各型牙髓病的临床表现和诊断要点

一、可复性牙髓炎

二、不可复性牙髓炎

三、牙髓坏死

四、牙髓钙化

五、牙内吸收

第四节 非牙源性牙痛的鉴别诊断思路

一、口腔颌面部疾病

二、远隔器官疾病来源的牵涉痛

三、神经性疼痛

四、血管性神经痛

五、非典型性面痛

六、孟乔森综合征

 

第十六章  根尖周病的临床表现及诊断 

[目的要求]

     1. 掌握各型根尖周病的临床表现和诊断。

     2. 掌握急性根尖周炎的临床分期、排脓通道和排脓方式。

     3. 掌握急性根尖周脓肿与急性牙周脓肿的鉴别。

 4. 熟悉慢性根尖周炎的分型和病理变化。

 5. 了解根尖周囊肿的形成理论。

[教学内容]

     1.各型根尖周病的临床表现和诊断。

     2.急性根尖周炎的临床分期、排脓通道和排脓方式。

     3.急性根尖周脓肿与急性牙周脓肿的鉴别。

 4.慢性根尖周炎的分型和病理变化。

 5.根尖周囊肿的形成理论。

第一节 急性根尖周炎

一、急性浆液性根尖周炎

二、急性化脓性根尖周炎

第二节 慢性根尖周炎

 

第十七章  牙髓病和根尖周病治疗概述 

[目的要求]

1. 掌握髓病和根尖周病的治疗原则和应急处理措施。

2. 熟悉橡皮障隔离法、局部麻醉的常用方法及牙髓失活法。

3. 了解牙髓病和根尖周病的治疗计划。

[教学内容]

1. 牙髓病和根尖周病的治疗原则和应急处理措施。

2. 橡皮障隔离法、局部麻醉的常用方法及牙髓失活法。

3. 牙髓病和根尖周病的治疗计划。

第一节 治疗原则和治疗计划

一、治疗原则

二、治疗计划

第二节 病例选择

一、患者状态

二、患牙的状态

第三节 术前感染控制

一、术区的隔离

二、器械的清洗、消毒和灭菌方法

三、灭菌程序的监测

四、基本的防护措施

第四节 疼痛的控制

一、局部麻醉法

二、失活法

第五节 应急处理

一、开髓引流

二、切开排脓

三、去除刺激

四、调合磨改

五、消炎止痛

 

第十八章 活髓保存与根尖诱导成形术  

[目的要求]

    1. 掌握直接盖髓术、间接盖髓术和牙髓切断术的原理及适应证。

     2. 掌握根尖诱导成形术的修复机制和愈合类型。

  3. 熟悉直接盖髓术、间接盖髓术和根尖诱导成形术的操作步骤。

     4. 了解根尖屏障术的原理和操作步骤。

[教学内容]

    1. 直接盖髓术、间接盖髓术和牙髓切断术的原理及适应证。

     2. 根尖诱导成形术的修复机制和愈合类型。

  3. 直接盖髓术、间接盖髓术和根尖诱导成形术的操作步骤。

     4. 根尖屏障术的原理和操作步骤。

第一节 盖髓术

一、直接盖髓术

二、间接盖髓术

第二节 牙髓切断术

一、原理

二、适应证

三、操作步骤

四、预后和转归

五、并发症和处理

第三节 根尖诱导成形术

一、概述

二、适应证

三、操作步骤

四、注意事项

五、修复机制与愈合类型

第四节 根尖屏障术

一、原理

二、适应证

三、操作步骤

四、预后

 

第十九章  根管治疗术

[目的要求]    

    1. 掌握根管治疗术的概念、病例选择和操作原则。

     2.  熟悉根管治疗术的原理和疗效评价标准。

 3. 了解根管治疗术的发展概况。

[教学内容]

     1. 根管治疗术的概念、病例选择和操作原则。

     2. 根管治疗术的原理和疗效评价标准。

 3. 根管治疗术的发展概况。

第一节 根管治疗术的发展概况

第二节 根管治疗术的原理

一、根管内感染的特点

二、感染根管的类型及治疗原则

第三节 根管治疗术的病例选择

一、适应证

二、非适应证

第四节  根管治疗术的操作原则

一、彻底清除根管内的感染

二、严密充填根管并修复缺损,防止微渗漏发生

三、坚持保存原则

第五节 根管治疗的疗效及评价标准

一、 疗效评价的内容

二、疗效标准

三、组织愈合形式

 

第二十章  髓腔应用解剖与开髓

[目的要求]    

     1.掌握各牙位的髓腔应用解剖特点。

      2.掌握开髓术及常用器械使用方法。

      3.熟悉根尖解剖特点。

   4.了解牙根发生特点。

[教学内容]

     1. 各牙位的髓腔应用解剖特点。

     2. 开髓术及常用器械使用方法。

     3. 根尖解剖特点。

  4. 牙根发生特点。

第一节 髓腔应用解剖

一、恒牙根管形态特点

二、牙根发生的特点

三、根尖解剖特点

第二节 髓腔通路预备

     一、髓腔预备器械

二、髓腔预备

 

第二十一章  根管预备与消毒  

[目的要求]

    1. 掌握常用根管预备技术的基本步骤、优缺点和注意事项。

     2. 熟悉各种手用不锈钢器械和机用镍钛器械的特点。

     3. 了解根管超声冲洗和消毒药物的使用。

[教学内容]

     1.  常用根管预备技术的基本步骤、优缺点和注意事项。

     2. 各种手用不锈钢器械和机用镍钛器械的特点。

     3. 根管超声冲洗和消毒药物的使用。

第一节 根管预备

一、常用根管预备器械

二、根管清理

三、根管预备的方法

第二节 根管消毒及暂封

一、氢氧化钙

二、氯己定

三、窝洞暂封

 

第二十二章  根管充填 

[目的要求]

    1.掌握根管充填材料的种类和性能以及侧方加压根管充填方法。

     2.熟悉垂直加压充填技术。

 3.了解其他类型的根管充填方法。

[教学内容]

     1. 根管充填材料的种类和性能以及侧方加压根管充填方法。

     2. 垂直加压充填技术。

     3. 其他类型的根管充填方法。

第一节 根管充填的时机

第二节 管充填材料

一、根管充填材料的性能

二、根管充填材料的种类和特点

第三节 根管充填方法

一、侧方加压充填法

二、垂直加压充填法

三、热塑牙胶注射充填法

四、固核载体插入充填技术

第四节 根管充填质量的评价

 

第二十三章 显微根管治疗与根管外科

 [目的要求]

    1. 掌握口腔科手术显微镜的结构及工作原理;根尖手术的适应证。

     2. 熟悉口腔科手术显微镜在根管治疗中的应用。

     3. 了解根尖手术的步骤和方法。

[教学内容]

     1.口腔科手术显微镜的结构及工作原理;根尖手术的适应证。

     2. 口腔科手术显微镜在根管治疗中的应用。

     3. 根尖手术的步骤和方法。

第一节 显微根管治疗

一、口腔科手术显微镜和治疗器械

二、显微根管治疗

第二节 根管外科

一、适应证与禁忌证

二、术前准备

三、麻醉

四、手术步骤

五、术后护理和复查

 

第二十四章  根管治疗并发症及根管再治疗 

[目的要求]

 1.掌握根管治疗并发症的预防方法

 2.掌握根管治疗后疾病的诊断及根管再治疗的术前评估

 3.熟悉根管治疗并发症的发生原因及处理原则

     4.熟悉根管治疗后疾病的处理原则和治疗方法

 5.了解根管治疗并发症的种类

     6.了解根管治疗后疾病的病因

[教学内容]

1.根管治疗并发症的预防方法

2.根管治疗后疾病的诊断及根管再治疗的术前评估

3.根管治疗并发症的发生原因及处理原则

4.根管治疗后疾病的处理原则和治疗方法

5.根管治疗并发症的种类

6.根管治疗后疾病的病因

第一节 根管治疗并发症的预防和处理

一、器械分离

二、穿孔

三、软组织的化学损伤

四、急性根尖周炎(诊间急症)

五、其他

第二节  根管治疗后疾病的病因

一、微生物感染

二、异物反应

三、根尖周囊肿

四、治疗因素

第三节  根管治疗后疾病的诊断及处理原则

      一、临床病史的采集

二、根管治疗后疾病的检查

三、根管治疗后疾病的诊断

四、根管治疗后疾病的处理原则

第四节  根管再治疗

      一、根管再治疗的适应证

二、根管再治疗的术前评估

三、根管再治疗步骤

 

第二十五章  根管治疗后的牙体修复 

[目的要求]

    1.掌握根管治疗后牙齿的变化特点、牙体修复的重要性、修复的时机。

     2.熟悉根管治疗后牙体修复的材料与方法。

     3.了解根管治疗后牙体修复的技术要点。

[教学内容]

     1.根管治疗后牙齿的变化特点、牙体修复的重要性、修复的时机。

     2.根管治疗后牙体修复的材料与方法。

     3.根管治疗后牙体修复的技术要点。

第一节  可靠的牙体修复是根管治疗疗效的重要保障

      一、根管治疗后牙齿物理化学特征的改变

       二、根管治疗后的牙冠修复

第二节  根管治疗后牙体修复前的评估及方法选择

      一、牙体修复前的评估

       二、修复材料的选择

       三、修复方法的选择

第三节  根管治疗后牙齿的椅旁修复

      一、银汞合金充填修复术的选择

       二、复合树脂粘结修复的选择

       三、椅旁CAD/CAM全瓷修复的选择

第四节  根管治疗后牙齿的间接修复

      一、高嵌体或部分冠的选择

       二、全冠的选择

       三、桩核的选择

The syllabus of Cariology,Endodontology and Operative Dentistry

 

(The fourth edition)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oral medical school of Shandong University

 

The teaching and research department of oral medicine

 

 

May of 2013

 

 

 

 

 

The course’s serial number: 0243202210

Hour of credit: 2.5

Teaching hour: 40

Experimental hour: 80

Suitable major: The five-year/seven-year Stomatology

Editor: Wang Qing , Xiong Shijiang

Chief umpire: Wang Qing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table one: allocation of teaching hours for theories

Chapters

Teaching Content

Teaching hours

Chapter one  

General description

1

Chapter two

Etiology and process of dental caries

3

Chapter three

Clinical manifestations and detective technique of dental caries

2

Chapter four

Treatment of dental caries

4

Chapter five

Amalgam alloy restoration

2

Chapter six

Adhesive restoration for teeth defect

4

Chapter seven

Dysplasiadentalis and discoloration of teeth

2

Chapter eight

Tooth trauma 

1

Chapter nine

Chronic injury of teeth

0.6

Chapter ten

Dentinal hypersensitivity 

0.2

Chapter eleven

The treatment of non-carious disease of dental hard tissue

0.2

Chapter twelve

Physiological characteristics of pulpal and periapical tissues

2

Chapter thirteen

The etiology and pathogenesis

1

Chapter fourteen

The history-taking and clinical examination

1

Chapter fifteen

Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of pulpal diseases

2

Chapter sixteen

Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of periapical lesions   

2

Chapter seventeen

Treatment overview of pulpal disease and periapical lesions

2

Chapter eighteen

Vital pulp therapy and apexification

2

Chapter nineteen

Root canal therapy

1

Chapter  wenty

The anatomy of pulp cavity and access cavity preparation

1

Chapter twenty-one

Root canal preparation and intracanal medicaments

2

Chapter twenty-two 

 Root canal filling 

     1

Chapter  twenty-three

Microscopic root canal therapy and endodontic surgery

    1

Chapter twenty-four

The complications of root canal therapy and root canal retreatment

1.5

Chapter twenty-five

Dental restoration after root canal therapy 

0.5

Total teaching hour:40

 

Table two: allocation of teaching hours for experiments

 

Experiment order

Experiment content

Teaching hour

1

The use of the treatment chair, knowledge of oral instruments and basic examination methods

 

4

2

Preparation of Class Ⅰ、Ⅱ cavity on plaster model

4

3

Preparation of Class Ⅲ、Ⅴ cavity on plaster

model

4

4

Preparation of Class Ⅰ、Ⅱ cavity on simulated head model

4

5

Preparation of Class Ⅲ、Ⅴ cavity on simulated  head  model

4

6

Preparation of Class Ⅰ、Ⅱ cavity in extracted  teeth on simulated head model

4

7

Preparation of Class Ⅲ、Ⅴ cavity in extracted teeth on simulated head model

4

8

Rubber dam isolation

4

9

Filling of ClassⅠ、Ⅱcavity on simulated teeth and extracted teeth

4

10

Adhesive  restoration

4

11

Preparation of cavity and filling (clinical novitiate)

4

12

Access cavity preparation of maxillary teeth

4

13

Access cavity preparation of mandibular teeth

4

14

Pulp capping and pulpotomy

4

15

Root canal therapy——in extracted teeth with single root canal

4

16

Root canal therapy ——in extracted teeth with multi-root canal

4

17

Root canal therapy

4

18

Endodontic surgery

4

19

Application of surgical microscopes in endodontic treatment

4

20

Noviciate of pulp and periapical diseases

4

Total teaching hour:80

1. The status, role and task of this course

Cariology, Endodontology and Operative Dentistry is an important clinical course of stomatology, the study of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, non-carious disease of dental hard tissue, pulp diseases and periapical lesions. Considering caries is one of the most common human diseases and meanwhile, pulp diseases or periapical lesions are main causes of acute pain in patients with oral diseases, grasping the basic theory, occurrence, development, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these diseases is the basic requirement for the oral medical students and oral physicians.

Through the study of basic theory of Cariology, Endodontology and Operative Dentistry , the basic clinical skill training and clinical practice, students can grasp the basic knowledge, theories and skills of this major . This course not only combines teaching with practice but also introduces the development and academic frontier of scientific research and clinical development at domestic and abroad. The course includes lectures, operation training, electronic teaching, clinical novitiate, clinical practice, problem based learning and examinations.

2. The basic content of this course

 Cariology , Endodontology and Operative Dentistry is an important clinical course of stomatology, the study of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, non-carious disease of dental hard tissue, pulp diseases and periapical lesions. It contains general description, etiology and process of dental caries, clinical manifestations and detective techniques of dental caries, treatment of dental caries, amalgam alloy restoration, adhesive restoration for tooth defect, dysplasiadentalis and discoloration of teeth, tooth trauma, chronic injury of teeth, dentinal hypersensitivity, the treatment of non-carious disease of dental hard tissue, physiological characteristics of pulpal and periapical tissues, the etiology and pathogenesis, the history-taken and clinical examination, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of pulp diseases, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of periapical lesions, treatment overview of pulpal diseases and periapical lesions, vital pulp therapy and apexification, root canal therapy, the anatomy of pulp cavity and access cavity preparation, root canal preparation and intracanal medicaments, root canal filling, microscopic root canal therapy and endodontic surgery, the complications of root canal therapy and root canal retreatment, dental restoration after root canal therapy.

 

3. Basic requirement of the course teaching

 

PART ONE        CARIOLOGY

Chapter One   General Description

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the concept and characteristics of dental caries.

2. Grasp the most common teeth and position of dental caries.

3. Comprehend the research content of cariology.

4. Comprehend the approaches of evaluation on the epidemiology of dental caries.

5. Comprehend the epidemiology of dental caries in modern people.

6. Acquaint with the history of cariology.

[Teaching Content]

1. The definition and characteristics of dental caries.

2. Grasp the most common teeth and position of dental caries.

3. Comprehend the research content of cariology.

4. Comprehend the approaches of evaluation on the epidemiology of dental caries.

5. Comprehend the epidemiology of dental caries in modern people.

6. Acquaint with the history of cariology.

The first section   The concept of dental caries

1. The definition and characteristics of dental caries

2. The history of dental caries

3. The research content of caries epidemiology.

 

The second section   Epidemiology of dental caries

1.Evaluation method

2. Caries predilection sites

3.Modern peoples prevalence state

4.Epidemic trend

Chapter Two    Etiology and Process of Dental Caries

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the formation of dental plaque.

2. Grasp cariogenic microorganisms and their properties leading to dental caries.

3. Grasp mechanisms of carious process.

4. Comprehend the diet, parasitifer and the immune factors relating to dental caries

5. Acquaint with the rest of factors affecting dental caries.

[Teaching Content]

1. The formation of dental plaque.

2. Cariogenic microorganisms and their properties leading to dental caries.

3. Mechanisms of carious process.

4. Diet, parasitifer and the immune factors relating to dental caries

5. The other factors affecting dental caries.

The first section     Dental plaque

1. The structure of the dental plaque

2. The composition of plaque

3. The formation and development of dental plaque

4. Dental plaque of microbiology

5. Dental plaque metabolism

6. Dental plaque to caries

The second section    Dietary factors

1.Carbohydrates

2.Protein

3.Lipid

4.Vitamin

5.Inorganic salt

The third section    Parasitifer

1.Teeth

2.Saliva

3.Immunity

The fourth section      The other factors affecting the development of caries

1.Age

2.Sex

3.Race

4.Family

5.Geographical factors

The fifth section     Etiology

1.Endogenous theory

2.Exogenous theory

3. Proteolysis theory

4. Proteolysis-chelation theory

5. Miller chemo-parasitic theory

6. Tetragenous factors theory

7. The generalized caries disease ecology hypothesis

Chapter Three    Clinical Manifestations and Detective Technique of Dental Caries

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp clinical manifestations, detective techniques and diagnostic criteria of dental caries.

2. Comprehend clinical classification of dental caries.

3. Acquaint with the pathology of dental caries.

[Teaching Content]

1. Clinical manifestations, detective techniques and diagnostic criteria of dental caries.

2. Clinical classification of dental caries.

3. Pathology of dental caries.

The first section    The pathological process of dental caries

1.Caries of enamel

2.Caries of dentin

3.Caries of cementum

4.Demineralization and remineralization

The second section    Manifestations and classification of dental caries

1 Classification of caries according to situation and progress

2.Classification of caries according to anatomical situs

3.Classification of caries according to the depth of the lesion

The third section   The diagnose of dental caries

1. Diagnostic methods

2. Diagnostic criteria

Chapter Four     Treatment of Dental Caries

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp non-operative treatments of dental hard tissue diseases.

2. Grasp treatments of deep caries and root caries.

3. Grasp principles of dental restoration and selection of restorative material.

4. Comprehend classification and structure of the cavity.

5. Acquaint with the biological basis of dental restoration.

[Teaching Content]

1. Non-operative treatments of dental hard tissue diseases.

2. Treatments of deep caries and root caries.

3. Principles of dental restoration and selection of restorative material.

4. Classification and structure of the cavity.

5. The biological basis of dental restoration.

The first section Non-surgical treatment

1. Drug treatment

2. Remineralizative therapy

3. Preventive resin restoration

The second section   The biological basis of tooth repair treatment

1. Enamel

2. Pulpodentinal complex

3.Cementum

4.Periodontium

The third section   Dental restoration and the principles of material selection

1. The principles of dental restoration

2. The principles of the choice of filling material

The forth section    The classification and structure of cavity

1. The classification of cavity

2. The naming of cavity

3. The structure of cavity

The fifth section     The treatment of deep caries

1. The treatment principles of deep caries

2. The treatment method of deep caries

3. The treatment strategies of deep caries

The sixth section     The treatment of root caries

1. The clinical characteristics of root caries

Chapter Five       Amalgam Alloy Restoration

[Aims and Demands]  

1. Grasp basic principles of cavity preparation.

2. Grasp basic process of cavity preparation.

3. Grasp indications of amalgam alloy restoration.

4. Comprehend complications and management in operative treatment.

5. Comprehend main points in preparing different cavities with amalgam alloy restoration.

6. Acquaint with mixing of amalgam alloy.

7. Acquaint with mercury contamination and precautions.

[Teaching Content]

1. Basic principles of cavity preparation.

2. Basic process of cavity preparation.

3. Indications of amalgam alloy restoration.

4. Complications and management in operative treatment.

5. Main points in preparing different cavities with amalgam alloy restoration.

6. Mixing of amalgam alloy.

7. Mercury contamination and precautions.

The first section    Principles of cavity preparation

1.Clean the carious tooth tissues

2.Protect the pulp

3. Try to keep healthy tooth tissue

4. Pay attention to the patients with systemic conditions

The second section    The basic steps of cavity preparation

1.Prepare the shape of cavity

2.Prepare the cavity without pain

3.Isolate the Operation area

4.Disinfection of cavity

5.Cavity sealing, lining, basing

The third section    Amalgam alloy restoration

1.Indications

2.Preparation requirements of cavity

3. The points of all kinds of cavity preparation with amalgam alloy

4. The modulation of amalgam alloy

5.Filling of amalgam alloy

6.Mercury contamination and prevention

The forth section   Complications in the treatment of dental caries and its management

1.Accidental dental pulp exposure

2.Postoperative pain

3. Filling body break, fall off

4.Tooth fracture

5. Secondary caries

Chapter Six    Adhesive Restoration for Teeth Defect

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of composite resin.

2.Grasp types, mechanism and clinical choice of dentin adhesive.

3. Grasp clinical process of direct composite resin adhesive restorations.

4. Grasp direct composite resin adhesive restorations for anterior teeth with class cavity.

5.grasp direct composite resin adhesive restorations for molar teeth with class, classcavity.

6. Comprehend enamel adhesive and its mechanism.

7. Comprehend properties of composite resin and factors affecting the composite resin.

8. Comprehend clinical application of glass-ionomer and its compounds.

9. Comprehend direct composite resin adhesive restorations for anterior teeth with class cavity.

10. Comprehend reasons for failure of direct composite resin adhesive restorations for molar teeth.

11. Acquaint with the development process of dental adhesive.

12. Acquaint with the properties of composite resin, glass-ionomer and its compounds for dental restoration.

[Teaching Content]

1. Indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of composite resin.

2. Types, mechanism and clinical choice of dentin adhesive.

3. Clinical process of direct composite resin adhesive restorations.

4. Direct composite resin adhesive restorations for anterior teeth with class cavity.

5. Direct composite resin adhesive restorations for molar teeth with class , cavity.

6. Enamel adhesive and its mechanism.

7. Properties of composite resin and factors affecting the composite resin.

8. Clinical application of glass-ionomer and its compounds.

9. Direct composite resin adhesive restorations for anterior teeth with class cavity.

10. Reasons for failure of direct composite resin adhesive restorations for molar teeth.

11. The development process of dental adhesive.

12. The properties of composite resin , glass-ionomer and its compounds for dental restoration.

The first section    The principles of adhesive restorations

1.General description

2. Enamel adhesive

3. Dentin adhesive

The second section    Tooth-colored restorative materials

1.Composite resins

2.Glass-ionomer cement

3.Compomer

The third section    Composite resin adhesive restorations

1. General description

2. Preparation process

3. Tooth preparation and the pulp protection

4. The placement of matrix

5. Adhesive

6. Composite resin filling
7.Light cure of composite

8. Modification and polishing of the restoration

The forth section   Composite resin adhesive restorations of anterior teeth

1. General description

2. Clinical technology of class cavity’s direct restorations

3. Clinical technology of class cavity’s direct restorations

4. Clinical technology of class cavity’s direct restorations

The fifth section    Composite resin adhesive restorations of posterior teeth

1.General description

2.Clinical technology of class cavity’s direct restorations

3.Clinical technology of class cavity’s direct restorations

4.Sandwich technique of class cavity

5.The reason for the failure of the posterior teeth’s direct restorations

 

PART TWO   NON-CARIOUS DISEASE OF DENTAL HARD TISUUE

Chapter Seven   Dysplasiadentalis and Discoloration of Teeth

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp discoloration of teeth, especially the pathogenesis and the prevention principles of dental fluorosis.

2. Grasp the classification and diagnostic criteria of the discoloration of teeth.

3. Comprehend the prevention and treatment principles of abnormal central cusp.

4. Acquaint with the etiology and types of dysplasiadentalis.

5. Acquaint with the etiology and types of dentinogenesis imperfect.

6. Acquaint with the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of syphilitic teeth.

[Teaching Content]

1. Discoloration of teeth, especially the pathogenesis and the prevention principles of dental fluorosis.

2. Classification and diagnostic criteria of the discoloration of teeth.

3. Prevention and treatment principles of abnormal central cusp.

4. The etiology and types of dysplasiadentalis.

5. The etiology and types of dentinogenesis imperfect.

6. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of syphilitic teeth.

The first section   Dental dysplasia and abnormal structure

1. Enamel hypoplasia

2. Hereditary dentine disorders

3. Congenital syphilitic teeth

The second section    Discoloration of teeth

1. Dental fluorosis

2. Tetracycline stained teeth

The third section   Morphological abnormalities of teeth

1. Microdontia, macrodontia, conic shaped teeth

2. Fused teeth, geminated teeth, concrescence of teeth

3. Abnormal central cusp

4. Dens invaginatus

5. Enamel pearl

The fourth section   Tooth number abnormality

1. Premature eruption

2. Delayed eruption

Chapter Eight   Tooth Trauma

[Aims and Demands]

Grasp the types of dental trauma and the principles of treatment.

 

[Teaching Content]

The types of dental trauma and the principles of treatment.

The first section      Concussion of the teeth

The second section   Dislocation of the teeth

The third section      Tooth fracture

Chapter Nine   Chronic Injury of Teeth

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the concept of abrasion, attrition, wedge-shaped defect, erosion.

2. Comprehend the etiology of wedge-shaped defect, diagnosis and treatment of cracked tooth and vertical root fracture.

3. Acquaint with the clinical manifestations of erosion which caused by different types and different sources of acid.

[Teaching Content]

1. The concept of abrasion, attrition, wedge-shaped defect, erosion.

2. The etiology of wedge-shaped defect, diagnosis and treatment of cracked tooth and vertical root fracture.

3. The clinical manifestation of erosion which caused by different types and different sources of acid.

The first section         Abrasion

1. General description

2. Etiology

3. Clinical manifestations

4. Principles of treatment

The second section      Erosion

1. General description

2. Etiology

3. Clinical manifestations

4. Prevention and treatment principles

The third section   Wedge-shaped defect

1. General description

2. Etiology

3. Clinical manifestations

4. Prevention and treatment principles

The fourth section   Cracked tooth

1. General description

2. Etiology

3. Clinical manifestations

4. Prevention and treatment principles

The fifth section    Vertical root fracture

1. General description

2. Etiology

3. Clinical manifestations

 

Chapter Ten   Dentinal Hypersensitivity   

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the main symptoms, grading and inspection method of dentine hypersensitivity

2. Comprehend the treatment principles of dentinal hypersensitivity.

3. Acquaint with the dynamic theory of fluid.

[Teaching Content]

1. The main symptoms, grading and inspection method of dentine hypersensitivity

2. The treatment principles of dentinal hypersensitivity.

3. Dynamic theory of fluid.

1. General description

2. Risk factors

3. Mechanism

4. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis

5. Treatment principles

Chapter Eleven   The Treatment of Non-carious Disease of Dental Hard Tissue

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the main treatment methods of 3 types of abnormal manifestations of non-carious disease of dental hard tissue.

2. Comprehend operation points of internal and external bleaching technique.

3. Acquaint with the main complications of non-vital bleaching technique.

[Teaching Content]

1. The main treatment methods of 3 types of manifestations of non-carious disease of dental hard tissue.

2. Operation points of internal and external bleaching technique.

3. The main complications of non-vital bleaching technique.

1. Dentinal hypersensitivity

2. Dental fluorosis

3. Tetracycline stained teeth

4. Non-vital teeth

 

PART THREE     PULP DISEASES AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS

Chapter Twelve   Physiological Characteristics of Pulpal and Periapical Tissues

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp morphological characteristics of pulp and structural characteristics of dentinoblasts

2. Comprehend the function of dental pulp and the characteristics of the sensory nerve fibers of pulp.

3. Acquaint with age-related changes of dental pulp and age-related changes of dental pulp.

[Teaching Content]

1. Morphological characteristics of pulp and structural characteristics of dentinoblasts

2. The function of dental pulp and the characteristics of the sensory nerve fibers of pulp.

3. Age-related changes of dental pulp and age-related changes of dental pulp.

 Morphological characteristics

 Structural characteristics

1. Formation

2. Nutrition

3. Sensation

4. Defense

The third section         The age-related changes of pulp

1. Volume change
2.
Structural changes
3.
Function change

The fourth section        The physiological characteristics of periapical tissue
1.
 Cementum
2.
 Periodontal membrane
3.
 Alveolar bone

Chapter Thirteen         The Etiology and Pathogenesis

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the effect and mechanism of bacterial factors in dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

2. Grasp the route of infection of pulp disease and periapical lesions.

3. Comprehend the pathogenesis of the bacterial factors and host response.

4. Acquaint with the effect of physical, chemical and immune factors.

[Teaching Content]

1. The effect and mechanism of bacterial factors in dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

2. The route of infection of pulp disease and periapical lesions.

3. The pathogenesis of the bacterial factors and host response.

4. The effect of physical, chemical and immune factors.

The first section    Microbial factors

1. The dominant bacteria and their metabolites
2.
The route of infection

3. Pathogenic mechanism

The second section   Physical factors

1. Trauma

2. Temperature

3. The electric current

4. Laser

1. Filling materials

2. Acid etching agent and adhesive

3. Disinfection drugs

 

Chapter Fourteen    The History-Taking and Clinical Examination

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the content of history-taking and the methods of enquiry.

2. Grasp the principles and method of pulp test

3. Comprehend the selection of imaging examination method and its limitations of clinical application.

4. Acquaint with the application of cone beam CT and dental operating microscope in the diagnosis of pulp disease and periapical lesions.

[Teaching Content]

1. The content of history-taking and the methods of enquiry.

2. The principles and method of pulp test

3. The selection of imaging examination and its limitations of clinical application.

4. The application of cone beam CT and dental operating microscope in the diagnosis of pulp disease and periapical lesions.

The first section    History-taken

1. Chief complaint

2. Present dental illness

3. General disease history

The second section   Clinical examination method

1. Pulp test

2. Imaging examination

Chapter Fifteen   Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Pulp Disease

[Aims and Demands]

1.Grasp clinical diagnostic term, clinical manifestations, main points of diagnosis of different types of pulp diseases.

2..Grasp diagnostic program and differential diagnosis of pulpitis.

3.Comprehend a variety of pathological changes and classification of dental pulp.

4. Acquaint with differential diagnosis of toothache and the diseases which similar with it.
[Teaching Content]

1. Clinical diagnostic term, clinical manifestations, the main points of diagnosis of different types of dental pulp diseases.

2. Diagnostic program and differential diagnosis of pulpitis.

3. A variety of pathological changes and classification of dental pulp.

4. Differential diagnosis of toothache and the diseases which similar with it.

1. The classification of histopathology

2. Clinical classification
The second section   Clinical diagnostic procedure of pulp disease

The third section    The clinical manifestations and the mainpiontof diagnosis of different types of dental pulp disease

1. Reversible pulpitis

2. Irreversible pulpitis

3. Pulp necrosis

4. Pulp calcification

5. Internal resorption

The fourth section    Differential diagnosis of the nonodontogenic toothache

1. Oral and maxillofacial diseases

2. Referred pain from remote pathologic sites

3. Neuropathic pains

4. Neurovascular pains

5. Atypical facial pain

6. Munchausen syndrome

Chapter Sixteen Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Periapical Lesions

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of different types of periapical lesions.

2. Grasp clinical staging, drainage channels and drainage way of acute apical periodontitis.

3. Grasp differential diagnosis between acute apical abscess and acute periodontal abscess.

4. Comprehend typing and pathological changes of chronic apical periodontitis.

5. Acquaint with formation theory of periapical cyst.

[Teaching Content]

1. The clinical manifestation and diagnosis of different types of periapical lesions.

2. Clinical staging, drainage channels and drainage way of acute apical periodontitis.

3. Differential diagnosis between acute apical abscess and acute periodontal abscess.

4. Types and pathological changes of chronic apical periodontitis.

5. Formation theory of periapical cyst.

1. Acute serous apical periodontitis

2. Acute suppurative apical periodontitis

The second section   Chronic apical periodontitis

Chapter Seventeen   Treatment Overview of Pulp Disease and Periapical Lesions

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp treatment principles and emergency treatment measures of dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

2. Comprehend rubber dam isolation, the common method of local anesthesia and devitalization of dental pulp.

3. Acquaint with treatment plan of dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

[Teaching Content]

1. Treatment principles and emergency treatment measures of dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

2. Rubber dam isolation, the common method of local anesthesia and devitalization of dental pulp.

3. Treatment plan of dental pulp disease and periapical lesions.

The first section     Treatment principles and treatment plan

1. The treatment principles

2. The treatment plan

The second section   Cases selection

1. The state of patients

2. The state of teeth

The third section      Preoperative infection control

1. Isolation of the operation area

2. The cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods of instruments

3. Monitoring the sterilization procedure

4. The basic protective measures

The fourth section        Pain control
1.
Local anesthesia

2. Devitalization

1. Opening the pulp chamber and achieving drainage

2. Incision and drainage

3. The removal of stimulus

4. Occlusal adjustment

5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic

Chapter Eighteen   Vital Pulp Therapy and Apexification

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the principles and the indications of direct pulp capping, indirect pulp capping and pulpotomy.

2. Grasp the repair mechanism and the types of healing of apexification.

3. Comprehend operation steps of direct pulp capping, indirect pulp capping and apexification.

4. Acquaint with principles and operation steps of the apical barrier technique.

[Teaching Content]

1. The principles and indications of direct pulp capping, indirect pulp capping and pulpotomy .

2. The repair mechanism and types of healing of apexification.

3. Procedure operation of direct pulp capping, indirect pulp capping and apexification.

4. Principles and operation steps of the apical barrier technique.

The first section    Pulp capping

1. Direct pulp capping

2. Indirect pulp capping

The second section      Pulpotomy

1. The principles

2. Indications

3. Operation steps

4. Prognosis and outcome

5. Complications and treatment

1. General description

2. Indications

3. Operation steps

4. The matters needing attention

5. Repair mechanisms and types of healing

1. The principles

2. Indications

3. Operation steps

4. Prognosis

Chapter Nineteen    Root Canal Therapy

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the concept of root canal therapy, case selection and operation principles.

2. Comprehend principles and criteria for evaluation of root canal therapy.

3. Acquaint with the development of root canal therapy.

[Teaching Content]

1. The concept of root canal therapy, cases selection and operation principles.

2. Principles and criteria for evaluation of root canal therapy.

3. The development of root canal therapy.

The first section      The general reviews of root canal therapy

The second section      Principles of root canal therapy

1. Characteristics of root canal infections

2. The types and treatment principles of infected root canals

The third section    Cases selection of root canal therapy

1. Indications

2. Contraindications

The fourth section     The operation principles of root canal therapy

1. Complete removal of the infected tissues of root canal

2. Strict root canal filling and repairment, preventing microleakage occurring

3. Follow the preservation principles

The fifth section    Therapeutic effect and criteria for evaluation of root canal treatment

1. The content of therapeutic evaluation

2. Criteria for evaluation

3. The form of tissues healing

Chapter Twenty   the Anatomy of Pulp Cavity and Access Cavity Preparation

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the anatomic characteristics of the pulp cavities of teeth.

2. Grasp access cavity preparation and application methods of commonly used instrument.

3. Comprehend the anatomical characteristics of root apex.

4. Acquaint with characteristics of root formation.

[Teaching Content]

1. The anatomic characteristics of the pulp cavities of teeth.

2. Access cavity preparation and application methods of commonly used instrument.

3. The anatomical characteristics of root apex.

4. Characteristics of root formation.

The first section    Application anatomy of pulp cavity

1. Morphological characteristics of the root canal of permanent teeth.

2. The characteristics of root formation.

3. Anatomical characteristics of root apex.

The second section      Preparation of the pathway of pulp chamber

1. The instrument for pulp cavity preparation

2. Pulp cavity preparation

Chapter Twenty-one   Root Canal Preparation and Intracanal Disinfection

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the basic steps, the advantages and disadvantages and the matters needing attention of commonly used technology in root canal preparation.

2. Comprehend characteristics of various stainless steel hand instruments and nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

3. Acquaint with the apply of root canal ultrasonic irrigation and disinfection drugs.

[Teaching Content]

1. The basic steps, the advantages and disadvantages and the matters needing attention of commonly used technology in root canal preparation.

2. Characteristics of various hand use stainless steel instruments and nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

3. The apply of root canal ultrasonic cleaning and disinfection drugs.

The first section     The root canal preparation

1. Commonly used instruments in root canal preparation

2. Root canal cleaning

3. Methods of root canal preparation

The second section     Root canal disinfection and temporary closure
1.
Calcium hydroxide

2. Chlorhexidine

3. Temporary cavity filling

Chapter Twenty-two    Root Canal Obturation

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the types and performance of root canal filling material, the lateral condensation technique of root canal filling.

2. Comprehend vertical condensation technique.

3. Acquaint with other types of root canal filling technique.

[Teaching Content]

1. The types and performance of root canal filling material, the lateral condensation technique of root canal filling.

2. Vertical condensation technique.

3. Other types of root canal filling techniques.

The first section     Timing of root canal obturation

The second section   Root canal filling materials

1. The properties of root canal filling material

2. The types and the characteristics of root canal filling material

The third section      Root canal filling techniques

1. Lateral condensation technique

2. Vertical condensation technique

3. Thermoplasticized injectable filling technique

4. Solid-core carrier insertion technique

The fourth section   Evaluation of the quality of root canal obturaton

Chapter Twenty-three   Microscopic Root Canal Therapy and Endodontic Surgery

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the structure and working principles of dental operating microscope, the indications of endodontic surgery.

2. Comprehend the application of dental operating microscope in root canal treatment.

3. Acquaint with the steps and methods of endodontic surgery.

[Teaching Content]

1. The structure and working principles of dental operating microscope, the indications of endodontic surgery

2. The application of dental operating microscope in root canal treatment.

3. The steps and methods of endodontic surgery

The first section   Microscopic root canal therapy

1. Dental operating microscope and treatment instrument

2. Microscopic root canal therapy

The second section   Endodontic surgery

1. Indications and contraindications

2. The preoperative preparation

3. Anesthesia

4. Operation steps

5. Postoperative care and follow-up

Chapter Twenty-four    The Complications of Root Canal Therapy and Root Canal Retreatment

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the methods of preventing the complications of root canal therapy.

2. Grasp the diagnosis of the post-treatment endodontic disease and preoperative evaluation of root canal retreatment.

3. Comprehend the causes and treatment principles of the complications of root canal therapy.

4. Comprehend the principles of management and therapeutic method of the post-treatment endodontic disease.

5. Acquaint with the classifications of complications of root canal therapy

6. Acquaint with the pathogenesis of the post-treatment endodontic disease.

[Teaching Content]

1. The methods of preventing the complications of root canal therapy.

2. The diagnosis of the post-treatment endodontic disease and preoperative evaluation of root canal retreatment.

3. The causes and treatment principles of the complications of root canal therapy.

4. The principles of management and therapeutic method of the post-treatment endodontic disease.

5. The types of complications of root canal therapy

6. The pathogenesis of the post-treatment endodontic disease.

The first section     Prevention and management of the complications of root canal therapy

1. Instrument separation

2. Perforation

3. Chemical injuries of soft tissues

4. Accidental acute apical periodontitis

5. Other

The second section     The etiology of the post-treatment endodontic disease

1. Microbial infection

2. Foreign body reaction

3. Periapical cyst

4. Treatment factors

The third section The diagnosis and management principles of the post-treatment endodontic disease

1. Clinical history –taking

2. The examination of the post-treatment endodontic disease

3. The diagnose of the post-treatment endodontic disease

4. The management principles of the post-treatment endodontic disease

The fourth section  Root canal retreatment

1. The indications of root canal retreatment

2. Preoperative evaluation of root canal retreatment

3. Treatment steps of root canal retreatment

Chapter Twenty-five   Dental Restoration after Root Canal Therapy

[Aims and Demands]

1. Grasp the characteristics of teeth after root canal therapy , the importance of dental restoration and repair time.

2. Comprehend materials and methods for dental restoration after root canal therapy.

3. Acquaint with the technical points of dental restorations after root canal therapy.

[Teaching Content]

1.The characteristics of teeth after root canal therapy, the importance of dental restoration and repair time.
2. Materials and methods for dental restoration after root canal therapy

3.The technical points of dental restorations after root canal therapy.
The first section    Reliable dental restoration is an important guarantee for the curative effect of root canal therapy

1. The changes of the physical and chemical characteristics of teeth after root canal therapy

2. Crown restoration after root canal therapy

The second section  The evaluation and selection of methods before dental restorations

1. The evaluation before dental restorations

2. Material selection for dental restorations

3. The choice of restoration methods

The third section   Chair-side dental restoration after root canal therapy

1. The selection of silver amalgam filling restoration

2. The selection of composite resin adhensive restoration

3. The selection of CAD/CAM all-ceramic Chair-side restoration r

1. The selection of onlay or partial crown

2. The selection of full crown

3. The selection of post and core